Manuscript Finished!

The manuscript of Christopher Zoukis’ latest non-fiction project is finished!  Hooray!  The completed manuscript will be submitted to the publisher — Headpress of the U.K. — in the next few days.  Tentatively titled United Blood Nation:  The Untold Story of the East Coast Bloods, the book was a collaborative effort between Christopher Zoukis and John […]

Read More


Book Proposal

By Christopher Zoukis African-American gangs emerged in the Los Angeles area during the 1920s and 1930s.  By the late 1960s, a gang called the Baby Avenues was created in South Central L.A.  Like the monster Frankenstein, the Baby Avenues were the creation of a single individual – Raymond Washington aka ‘Ray-Ray.’  The Baby Avenues eventually […]

Read More


O. G. Mack

By Christopher Zoukis

In 1993, O.G.Mack formed the East Coast version of the Bloods.  Mack called his organization the United Blood Nation, but most simply referred to it as the East Side Bloods. 

O.G. Mack, whose real name was Omar Portee grew up in the Bronx, where he was raised by his grandmother.  A member of a ruthlessly brutal gang called the One Eight Trey Gangsters, Mack was arrested in 1988 for armed robbery.  He was 16 years old at the time.  Mack spent the next three years in prison, Rikers Island.  After being released in 1991, Mack’s grandmother sent him to California to live with relatives.  Her goal was to separate him from the noxious influence of gangs.  It didn’t work.  Most of his relatives in L.A. were members of the Miller Gangster Bloods.  In no time at all, Mack was neck deep in the L.A. gang culture.  Although he never officially joined the Miller Gangster Bloods, Mack ran with the gang, whose members considered him a Blood.   O. G. Mack / Image courtesy thehoodup.com

Mack returned to the Bronx two years later, in 1993.  He immediately took up where he left off, re-uniting with the One Eight Trey Gangsters.  Impressed by Bloods’ culture in L.A., Mack wasted little time convincing his fellow gangbangers that they should become part of the Blood alliance.  The gangbangers liked what they heard.  The One Eight Trey Gangsters became the One Eight Trey Gangster Bloods. 

A few months later, O.G. Mack was arrested for attempted murder.  While awaiting trial, Mack was again held on Rikers Island, in the George Mochen Detention Center (GMDC), which was also called C-73.  Individuals in GMDC were considered problem inmates and were segregated from the general prison population.  On Rikers Island, where the prison was controlled by the Latino gangs, the independent black gangs found themselves fighting not only the Latino gangs, but also fighting other black gangs because of street grudges that carried over into prison.  Most of these independent black gangs were affiliated with the umbrella alliance known as the African Blood Brotherhood or the Almighty Blood Brotherhood.  Mack, realizing that the independent black gangs in prison needed a way to protect themselves from the Latino gangs, called for a meeting of independent black gang leaders.  Mack’s idea, which he presented to the leaders, was to unite as a set of the Bloods.  This unity would allow them to successfully defend themselves against the Latino gangs. 

Read More


Bloods

By Christopher Zoukis

A Brief History

According to Julia Dunn, a gang “is an interstitial group, originally formed spontaneously, and then integrated through conflict.” Image courtesy pbs.org The term ‘interstitial’ refers to a culturally isolated or marginalized group of individuals, who, because of external circumstances (racism, lack of education, unemployment), have been left behind.  These individuals adopt a ‘strength through numbers’ attitude, assume collective standards of behavior, develop ad hoc structures of hierarchy and esprit de corps.  They identify with others of similar circumstances and exhibit territorial tendencies. 

After World War I, African-American enclaves sprouted up in the urban areas of major cities with the United States.  In the 1920s, Los Angeles encompassed large black enclaves, where unemployment was prevalent and poverty was the norm.  Within these enclaves, family members and friends banded together into loose, unorganized associations that were, for the most part, non-violent.  For lack of a better term, these associations came to be known as gangs.  The gangs of this historical time were non-territorial.  The primary function of such gangs was to present a ‘tough guy’ image and facilitate the accumulation of easy money by means of prostitution, forgery and theft.

Read More